Sunday, August 14, 2005

The Chinese Calendar

First, let's get the basics of calendars right

Gregorian Calendar or Solar Calendar - 阳历 「Yáng Lì 」
This is the calendar we see on our computer. The dates are arranged in
accordance to the movement of the Earth around the Sun. Each solar year
is 365 days and is divided into 12 months, with 30 or 31 days each, with
the exception of February. Every 4 years, there is a leap year whereby
February gets 29 days instead of 28.

Lunar calendar - 阴历 「Yīn Lì 」
Known as the traditional Chinese Calendar, it is based on the moon's orbit
around the Earth. The new moon day is the 1st day of a lunar month. The length
of a lunar month is the length between two new moon days which is 29 or 30 days.

Lunisolar calendar - 阴阳历 「Yīn Yáng Lì 」
This is a combination of the Lunar and Solar calendars. It indicates both the
moon phase and the time of the solar year and is used to track seasonal changes.
There is a 13th month, or intercalary month 閏月 「Rùn Yuè 」 in every 3 years.

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Farmers' Calendar 农历 「Nóng Lì 」

The Farmers' Calendar 农历 「Nóng Lì 」 or originally called 夏历 「Xià Lì 」
(which means Summer Calendar) is a Lunisolar Calendar and is used in 《ZWDS 》.

The calendar divides the year into 24 节气 Jieqi for agriculture (which was the principal
economy of the country). It is not normally used in day-to-day activities, but more for
dating of holidays and Chinese Astrology. It was based on a "19 年 7 闰 法" which means,
in every 19 years, 7 of the years have 13 months (the extra month is 闰月 「Rùn Yuè 」),
and the years which have 13 months are called 闰年 「Rùn Nián 」.

You can read about its early history here.
You can convert your western birthdate to the chinese calendar here.

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The first month of the year is called 正月 「Zheng Yue 」.
The rest of the months are simply numbered as second, third, fourth, etc etc.

The numbering of the months varied with different dynasties.
夏 Xia Dynasty sets 寅 「Yin 」 as the 1st month
whereas it was 丑 「Chou 」 during the 商 Shang Dynasty,
子 「Zi 」 during the 周 Zhou Dynasty and
亥 「Hai 」 during the 秦 Qin Dynasty.

It was however reverted back to 寅 「Yin 」 as the 1st month
during the 汉 Han Dynasty and remained so till today.

Branches - 12 Months

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The Chinese Time Concept

A day has 12 时辰 「 Shí Chén 」 and begins at 2300 hours or 11 pm. Each Shi Chen
is 2 hours and is named after each of the 12 Earthly Branches. The hour of 午 「 Wu 」 is
midday from 11 am to 12 pm, which is why till today, midday is called 中午 in chinese.
Ancients also made use of sundials to track time which were arranged in this manner:

Branches - 12 Shi Chen

It is not hard to guess the hours each branch corresponds to since the dial looks
pretty much like our modern clocks, except now, we are looking at a 24-hour clock face.

Shi Chen

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Directional traits are also factored into the interpretion of charts.

亥 「 Hai 」 and 子 「 Zi 」 represent North,
巳 「Si 」 and 午 「Wu 」 are South,
申 「Shen 」 and 酉 「You 」 are West and
寅 「Yin 」 and 卯 「Mao 」 are East.

Branches - Directions

You will discover the uses of Branch-directions if you tour around in China.
For example, the southern gate of the Imperial Palace in Beijing is called
Wu Men 午門, corresponding to the branch which represented the direction of South.

To summarise,

Time Concept Summary

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Friday, August 12, 2005

Basics - Hua Jia Na Yin and 五行局

Since each Stem and Branch has its own Yin or Yang Element, and Year, Month, Date
and Time are derived from the Stems and Branches, one is borned with a specific Element.
In ZWDS, one's specific Element is termed “五行局 「 Wu Xíng Jú 」”. The purpose of 五行局
in ZWDS is to determine the placement of the Zi Wei Star (the first start to be charted),
and to establish the decade luck cycles. However some practitioners use it to assess the
overall chart and general picture of one's pre-determined destiny, or to put it in another
way, one's hidden qualities. How you are going to rectify your flaws or to maximise your
assets can be known from the stars readings.

五行局 「 Wu Xíng Jú 」 is based on the concept of the 花甲纳音 「 Huā Jia Nà Yīn 」. Strange as
it may sound, 花甲纳音 「 Huā Jia Nà Yīn 」 is a system derived from the 60-year cycle 六十花甲
「 Liù Shí Huā Jia 」
(which was covered in the earlier post) and *Musical notes 纳音 「 Nà Yīn 」.

五行局 consists of :
水二局 - Water 2nd Phase
木三局 - Wood 3rd Phase
金四局 - Metal 4th Phase
土五局 - Earth 5th Phase
火六局 - Fire 6th Phase

Notice the numbers start from 2 and ends with 6. The reason behind this has to do
with 八卦 「 Bā Guà 」 and 河图 「 Hé Tú 」, but I will not attempt to explain it now
because if I have to explain it from scratch, this would be a very very long post.

Nevertheless, bear in mind that the numbers here are important and will play a part later on.

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And as mentioned earlier, 纳音 was infused into 五行局 and this produced a 纳音局 「 Nà Yīn Jú 」.

Na Yin Ju 纳音局

纳音局 「 Nà Yīn Jú 」 is a systematic breakdown of each Element into
6 different categories within itself. For example, the Wood Element 木三局 consists of :

大林木 - Forest trees
扬柳木 - Willow trees
松柏木 - Cypress trees
平地木 - Timber trees
桑柘木 - Chinese Mulberry trees
石榴木 - Pomegranate trees

From the meanings of the trees, it is not hard to guess the traits represented by each type of
wood. So as not to confuse readers, I will explain the meanings of each category in later posts.

The 30 categories (Na Yin) are then alloted to the 60-year combos (Hua Jia),
and this is the arrangement:

Hua Jia Na Yin 花甲纳音
Or, you can view the original script on Hua Jia Na Yin here.

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* Some background information on Chinese Musicology.

Music in ancient China was played on solo instruments or in small ensembles of plucked and bowed
stringed instruments, flutes, and various cymbals, gongs, and drums. The scale has only five notes :

角 「 jué 」 - the tone of Mi and represents Wood Element and Spring
征 「 zhi 」 - the tone of So and represents Fire Element and Summer
宫 「 gōng 」 - the tone of Do and represents Earth Element and change of season
商 「 shāng 」 - the tone of Re and represents Metal Element and Autumn
羽 「 yu 」 - the tone of La and represents Water Element and Winter

How the correlation between the 5 Elements and pentatonic scale came about is
profound and needs serious reading. However, according to surviving ancient texts,
all things correspond to the 5 Elements, hence correlations develop among all things.

For example, 司马迁
Sima Qian mentioned in his 史记 Shi Ji in Chapter: Music 《樂》,
“商 「 shāng 」 stimulates the lungs and harmonizes with Justice; 角 「 jué 」 stimulates the
liver and harmonizes with Kindness…”.

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Wednesday, August 10, 2005

Heavenly Stem 天干 and Earthly Branch 地支

The Stems and Branches 天干地支「Tiān Gān Dì Zhī 」, or in short, 干支
「Gān Zhī 」 , is the most significant counting system in the Chinese Calendar.
Its history goes back to even before the invention of Chinese characters.
Stem-Branch symbols were found on ancient Chinese Oracle Bones or 甲骨文.

10 Heavenly Stems 天干 「Tiān Gān 」
Heavenly Stems - Tian Gan

Initially, the stems were created to count the DAY only.
For example, the 1st day is , 2nd day is .....the 10th day is , and the
11th day goes back to and so on. Every 10-day cycle is called a 旬 「Xún 」.

Stems are still being used in Chinese community today. For example, in trading,
high-quality goods are considered 甲等货. In school, the
best class is always 甲班, the second best class is 乙班.

Then, the branches were used to count the MONTHS.

The Branches were representative of 12 selected animals,
which also resulted in the origin of the Chinese Horoscope.

12 Earthly Branches 地支 「Dì Zhī 」
Earthly Branches - Di Zhi

Later on, when ancient scholars applied the 12 Earthly Branches into
recording the YEAR and HOUR as well, it got way too confusing and
complicated due to the many repetitions of the same characters.

So, for the ease of differentiating one day from another, it was decided to pair
the stems and branches to form 60 different combinations for the counting
system. There are only 60 combinations, instead of the available 120, because
odd-numbered (Yang) stems can only be paired with odd-numbered branches,
and even-numbered (Yin) stems can only be paired with even-numbered branches.

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60-Year Cycle 六十花甲子

To explain how this 'numbering' works, denote the stems and branches by their numbers.

So, the first year will be (1,1) which is (甲,子), followed by the second year (2,2) which
is (乙,丑) and then the third year (3,3) which is (丙,寅)... up to (10,10) which is (癸,酉).

But now we have run out of stems, so we start from the first stem again, and the eleventh
year will be (1, 11) which is (甲,戌), and the twelveth year (2, 12) which is (乙,亥).

Now we have run out of branches, too, so we start from the first branch again, and the
thirteenth year becomes (3, 1) or (丙,子), and the fourteenth year (4,2) or (丁,丑)
......... and so on and so forth.......

We continue in this way through 6 cycles of stems and 5 cycles of branches
up to the 60th year which is (10, 12) or (癸,亥). The next number, 61st year,
will then again be (1,1) or (甲,子), and this starts a new cycle.

The end-product is the 60-year cycle, also known as 六十花甲子 「Liù Shí Huā Jia Zi 」.
六十 means 60, 甲子 refers to the first of the 60 Stem-Branch combos.

60 Hua Jia Chart

Taking the first year (甲子) as an example, since is Yang Wood, and is Rat,
then that year would be a Yang Wood Rat year. The 13th Year, which is also
a Rat year, would be 丙子 - a Yang Fire Rat year.

In ancient China, from 汉 Han Dynasty onwards, the Emperors assummed reigned
titles which are changed every few years. The titles were usually placed before
the year name for distinction. For example, "康熙壬寅" 「Kāng Xī Rén Yín 」
would mean Emperor 康熙 reigned in the year of 壬寅, and that would be
1662 AD according to the Year Cycle. This dating lends legitimacy of the reign
of each Emperor and makes it difficult for Chinese historians to take sides
(politically) in cases of disputed succession or revolts.

This Gan Zhi naming of years is sometimes still used today, for example,
the Reform Movement of 1898 was called "戊戌變法 Wu Xu Bian Fa and
the Revolution of 1911 was called "辛亥革命 Xin Hai Ge Ming.

Going by historical records, the last "甲子 Jia Zi year was in 1984, and
the next one will be in year 2045. So, year 2005 is the 22nd year (乙酉年)
of the 78th Cycle, which is a Yin Wood Chicken Year.

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阴阳 五行

Through the years, people started to adopt stem of the year as the stems
of the months, and stem of the day as the stems of the hours. The Gān Zhī(s) of
year, month, day and hour together form the Eight Characters or 八字 「Bā Zì 」
which determined one's date and time of birth.

In 《ZWDS 》, the Heavenly Stems and Earthly Branches system plays an important
part in the plotting of the Birth Chart, placement of stars, and in interpreting the chart.

As each Stem and Branch has its own Element and is either Yin or Yang, the 60-year
cycle system became the 'foundation' for many branches of Chinese Astrology. The
following chart summarises the relationship between the 10 Heavenly Stems, 12
Earthly Branches, Yin and Yang, the 5 Elements as well as the environment.

GanZhi-WuXing-YinYang Chart

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Monday, August 08, 2005

Basics - The 5 Elements 五行

Ancient Chinese believed that our universe consisted of 5 basic Elements. These 5
Elements, called 五行 「Wu Xíng 」, represent the processes that are fundamental to the
cycles of nature. The chinese term means the change and development of one thing
acting upon another. The 5 Elements are abstractly represented in nature in various forms :-

Metal 金 「Jīn 」 - stands for mineral, iron, jewellery; anything hard.

Water 水 「Shui 」 - stands for anything in liquid form or anything cold.

Wood 木 「Mù 」 - stands for tree, plant; anything to do with wood.

Fire 火 「Huo 」 - stands for fire, sun, heat, light; anything hot.

Earth 土 「Tu 」 - stands for soil, ashes, dust, ground or land.

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The concept of the 5 Elements or Phases describes both a Generating Cycle
and an Overcoming Cycle of interactions between the phases.

Generating Cycle 相生 「Xiāng Shēng 」 - describes the interaction of the
Five Elements where one Element generates or produces the next one.

Generating Cycle

Water generates Wood - We water plants (Wood) to make them grow.
Wood generates Fire - Wood burns easily and gives rise to Fire.
Fire generates Earth - When things are burnt, what is left are ashes (Earth).
Earth generates Metal - Earth helps minerals (Metal) to form.
Metal generates Water - Metal can hold Water. Heated metal produces liquid.

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The problem is, the Elements would keep on growing indefinitely. Some mechanism in needed
to control such unchecked growth. The next cycle, the Overcoming Cycle, provides just such
a control. These two cycles provide a balance necessary for normal growth and development.

Overcoming Cycle 相克 「Xiāng Kè 」 - expresses the relationship where
one Element exerts control, suppresses or inhibits another Element.

Overcoming Cycle

Water overcomes Fire - Water extinguishes Fire.
Fire overcomes Metal - Fire melts Metal.
Metal overcomes Wood - Axe cuts Wood.
Wood overcomes Earth - Plants extracts nutrients from the
ground and breaks the ground after taking root.
Earth overcomes Water - Earth can absorb Water or stop the flow of Water.

Thus, an example of Yin-Yang Balance is this :

Wood overcomes Earth --> Earth generates Metal --> Metal overcomes Wood
木克土﹝相克 Overcome﹞----> 土生金﹝相生 Generate﹞----> 金克木﹝反克 Subdue﹞

Which means, all 3 elements, Wood, Earth and Metal are able to exist in harmony.

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The 5 Elements have their own Yin and Yang aspects. The changes and
development of the 5 Elements are slow and stable when in balance, and
unstable and unpredictable when the balance is disturbed.

Yin-Yang Imbalance - When the acted-upon Element is too strong (excess Yang),
or the acting Element too weak (excess Yin), the 'natural' order is temporarily reversed.

Yin Yang Imbalance

Water can extinguish Fire, but Fire can evaporate Water.
Earth can absorb Water, but Water can cover the land.
Wood can break the ground, but Earth can bury Wood.
Metal can cut Wood, but Metal can become blunt before breaking Wood.
Fire can melt Metal, but Fire can be extinguished before it melts Metal.

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Five Elements in 《Zi Wei Dou Shu》

Above-written are only the basics of the Five Elements. However, it is not thorough enough
to be applied to Zi Wei Dou Shu. Five Elements concepts are used extensively in interpreting
of ZWDS charts. From stars to palaces, the Elements have to be taken into account. In fact,
almost all branches of Chinese fortune-telling are based on Yin/Yang and Five Elements
concepts, so without fully comprehending these concepts, it is difficult to understand
what Zi Wei Dou Shu is about, let alone see the wisdom and miracle of ancient Chinese.

I will cover the Five Elements more in-depth when we reach Interpreting of Charts.

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Saturday, August 06, 2005

Basics - Yin 阴 and Yang 阳

To have a better understanding of 《 紫微斗数 》, one needs
to have minimal knowledge of its fundamentals and basics.

The theory of Yin and Yang was found in a Chinese Classic called Zhou Yi 《 周易 》.
is made up of a (sun) above the character (moon).

The ancients used Yin and Yang to generalize the two extremes of the same process or
quality, which may be observed in natural phenomena. The Yin-Yang symbol, or called
太极图 「Tài Jí Tú 」, with black representing Yin and white representing Yang, is a symbol
that reflects the intertwined duality of all things in nature, a common theme in Taoism.

Yin Yang Symbol - Taijitu

However, nothing is absolute and independent of its opposite, nor so pure that
it does not contain its opposite in a diminished form, which is why there is
a white dot (Yang) within Yin and a black dot (Yin) within Yang.

In ancient Chinese, Yin means 'shady' or the back of the sun and Yang means 'sunny' and
refers to the front. Generally speaking, terms like darkness, internal, decline, weakness,
coldness, quietness, feminity etc. are categorised as Yin, whereas terms such as brightness,
external, mobility, warmth, activity, masculinity etc. are categorised as Yang.

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Principles of Yin and Yang

To summarise the principles of Yin and Yang,

1. Interdependence - Both Yin and Yang presuppose the existence of its opposed
aspect. If any aspect separates from the other opposed aspect, it can not exist
alone. For eg. wealth and poverty, night and day, health and sickness etc.

2. Growth and decline - Both Yin and Yang are not in the state of standstill
and while they are in movement, there is a change of mutual growth and decline,
for eg. sunset is "decline of Yang and growth of Yin" and winter to spring is "decline
of Yin and growth of Yang".

3. Coordination - In normal state, Yin and Yang are usually held in balance.
As one increases, the other decreases. However, if growth and decline of
Yin and Yang are not coordinative, imbalances can occur. There are four
possible imbalances: Excess Yin, excess Yang, Yin deficiency, Yang deficiency.

4. Transformation - Under certain conditions, and at particular stages,
Yin can transform into Yang and vice versa. For eg. cold water (Yin) can
be boiled and eventually turn into steam (Yang).

5. Subdivision - Yin and Yang can be subdivided into Yin and Yang.
That is to say, there are Yin and Yang within Yin, and there are
Yin and Yang within Yang. For eg. noon at its hottest is strong Yang
or 大阳 whereas sunset which is cooler, is weak Yang or 少阳.

6. Presence in absence - Nothing is solely Yin and nothing is absolutely
Yang. Even though an opposite may not be seen to be present, since one
principle produces the other, no phenomenon is completely devoid of its
opposite state. For eg. Fire (Yang) may be bright, but the heart of the
Fire is dark (Yin), a tree (Yang) may look lustre with abundance of leaves
and flowers, but it is hollow and damp (Yin) inside.

Yin and Yang both oppose and complement each other.
It is through this opposition that each has the ability to control each other
and maintain a relative balance. Yin and Yang are EQUALLY important,
unlike the typical dualism of good and evil.

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Wednesday, August 03, 2005

Zi Wei Dou Shu 《 紫微斗数 》 - What is it?

《紫微斗数》 is a form of fortune-reading that is widely used in ancient China.
紫微 「Zi Wēi 」 - literally translated as Purple Star - is the 'Emperor Star' of the chart.
It is known as the North Star in the West.斗数 「Dou Shù 」 means calculation.

《紫微斗数》 thus means the study of a person's life based on the movement and location
of the 紫微 Star and 100+ other stars at the specific time the person was born.

Based on one's Year, Month, Date and Time of birth - also known as 八字 「Bā Zì 」,
calculations are worked out to chart the stars into 12 different palaces or 宫 「Gōng 」.
This would then be one's Birth Chart or 命盘 「Mìng Pán 」.

By integrating the stars and palaces, their attributes, environmental factors, elemental
forces, Yin and Yang concept and all the possible combinations and variations, not only can
personalities be understood, but personal and professional relationships can be predicted,
and what to expect of any given year and duration of specific events can be forecasted as well.

An example of a Birth Chart looks like this -

Sample Chart

The plotting of one's birth chart is not difficult. What is difficult in 《紫微斗数 》 is
the complex system of interpretation that allows us to 'see' the blueprint of our lives. If
interpreted correctly, our birth charts can describe our past, present and future accurately.

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History of 《 紫微斗数 》

《紫微斗数》 was devised by a Taoist named 呂純陽 and later on
developed by 陳希夷 during the Song Dynasty (960-1279 AD) and later
on 羅洪先 during the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644 AD) to what it is today.
However, its origin is still debated among the different schools.

Chinese Astrology was closely intertwined with Astronomy and gifted Astronomer-Astrologers
were recruited as officials to work in the Imperial Court. In those days, astrological charts
were delineated for the Emperor as his personal fate has a direct bearing on that of his Kingdom.
The court astrologers played an important role in determining the successor to the throne too.

Astrologers observed the stars and noticed that among so many stars, only one
was seemingly stationary while the rest revolved around it. As it was also the brightest,
the star was named the 'Emperor Star' - the celestial equivalent of the Emperor.

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As with all other forms of fortune-telling, the Chinese do not generally see astrology
as an infallible guide to what will happen, but more as a form of weather
forecasting - knowledge about the factors that might influence events so as to be
more able to gauge the situation and make decisions from a position of strength.

《ZWDS》 approaches the world and events from the idea that, to view
things in their proper context, it is important to recognise the dynamism
of the universe, and that the pattern of change is the fundamental truth.

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Monday, August 01, 2005

Fate (命) and Luck (运)

In general, Chinese and Westerners have different ways of viewing LIFE.

It is commonly believed in the West that life is not pre-determined - nothing is sealed
at birth. It is believed that a child will become what we make of him, or what he makes of
himself. It is believed that the factors in development are heredity, education, environment,
diligence, etc. and that even the poorest child can become a President. In short, one
believes that he/she is the master of his/her destiny. Nobody likes the thought that there is
an invisible power up there controlling his/her life. Therefore, discerning fate, or fortune-
reading is not seriously regarded in the West, and sometimes labelled as superstitions.

But, have you ever came across capable friends who cannot make it in life for the lack of
opportunities? Or incompetent scums who seem to have all the luck and right opportunities
and connections and are able to move up the social ladder with no efforts of their own?

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Generally, Chinese believe that FATE or 命 「Mìng 」is real. Everyone of us is born
with different gifts and limitations. And by knowing and understanding our limitations,
we will be able to embark on the path that will lead to success instead of obstacles.

In 命术 「Mìng Shù 」, one's Fate is determined at birth - this is called 先天
「Xiān Tiān 」
. 先天 is impossible to be changed, or difficult to be modified.
This is what one started out with. A person's birth chart is akin to a manual for a
new cellphone which gives you the specifications of the phone, the model, operating
instructions etc. These default specifications are designed by the manufacturer. Our
birthdate and time, our parents, our siblings etc. are examples of such defaults.

What can be changed - but within limits - are our other aspects in life which
are affected by Luck or 运 「Yùn 」. What we have control over,
and achievable with our efforts, is generally called 后天 「Hòu Tiān 」.

The western definition of 'luck' is not different from 'chance'. Luck or chance
is random and is about statistics and probability. Since luck is random, it is unpredictable.

The Chinese's concept of luck is similar to the orbit of planets - cyclical and predictable.
An orbit is not a random movement and passes through space and time in a specific pattern.
That makes it knowable.

And if we know the status of our luck, we can base our actions on how strong
or weak it is at that time. Besides understanding our own strong points and
weaknesses, we also need to realize our potential and limitations underneath
our facades. Only then will we be able to move in the right direction effectively.

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5 Major Arts in Chinese Culture

Over the thousands of years, ancient Chinese has devised, discovered and
documented 5 major arts and philosophies, namely, 山、医、命、相、卜.

山术 「Shān Shù 」- Cultivation of one's area of interest while living in seclusion. The
'areas of interest' include religious cultivation (Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism etc.),
health cultivation (Qigong, Martial Arts etc.), spiritual cultivation, and refining pills for
medicinal purposes and immortality etc.

医术 「Yī Shù 」- Traditional Chinese Medicine such as Acupuncture, herbal remedies etc.

命术 「Mìng Shù 」- Analysing the character traits and potential using one's year, date
and time of birth in order to help one cope better with expected events and its timeline.
This is what Fortune-Telling is about and an art that anyone with interest can master.

相术 「Xiàng Shù 」- Observing the environment, objects, appearance etc, and
deduce events with the knowledge of Yin/Yang, 5 Elements and Gan Zhi.
Examples of this art are 风水 (Feng Shui) and 手相 (Palmistry).

卜术 「Bu Shù 」- Divination of events through omens, signs, oracles etc. It is
based on the belief that revelations are offered to humans by the gods or celestial
beings, to make known things that neither reason nor science can discover.
Examples include 梅花易数 (I-Ching) and 金钱卦 (divination using copper coins).

What I will be sharing with you is
命术 「Mìng Shù 」- the art of foretelling one's life events.

In addition, Chinese believe that success in life is based on these five areas
of influence, in order of importance:

1. 「Mìng 」 命 - fate, which is decided at birth and cannot be changed,
but can be known.

2. 「Yùn 」 运 - luck, which fluctuates with time,but predictable.

3. 「Fēng Shui 」 风水 - environment, which can be manipulated to reach the
higher levels of what our fate and luck allow.

4. 「Dào Dé 」 道德 - virtue and character, which brings us good
karma and good will.

5. 「Dú Shū 」 读书 - education and effort, the footwork. Even with the best luck,
if we sit at home and wait, we will miss out.

《紫微斗数》 「Zi Wēi Dou Shù 」 will give you an insight into your Fate and Luck.

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